Notes for Week of Nov 7 and Nov 14

Notes for Weeks of Nov. 7 and Nov.14

Energy Resources


1. Non-renewable resources are energy resources that do not naturally renew or replenish themselves

2. We deplete non-renewable resources by using them

3. Advantage – means for a good effect, favorable gain, or desired end.

4. Disadvantage – means for a bad effect, unfavorable, or undesired end.

5. Fossil fuels are formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over a long period of time. They include oil, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are currently the world’s primary resource.

6. Coal is mined to be burned to generate electricity. There are four types of coal – lignite, bituminous, anthracite, and peat.

7. The advantages of using coal resources include the following:
1. No shortage any time soon
2. Inexpensive
3. Reduces dependence on oil
4. Creates jobs

8. The disadvantages of using coal resources include the following:
1. Negative environmental impacts (burning, acid rain, increased acid rain)
2. Impact of mining on land
3. Impact on the health of miners

9. Oil is known as petroleum or crude oil. It is a thick black liquid that is found in specific rock reservoirs and is extracted by drilling. It is composed mostly of hydrogen and carbon (hydrocarbons).


10.The advantages of using oil include the following:
1. A small amount of oil produces a lot of energy
2. It is easy to transport and produce
3. It is a constant reliable resource for years to come

11. The disadvantages of using oil include the following: 
1. Burning oil emits greenhouse gases
2. Spills can cause both land and water pollution
3. Manufacturing plants can produce emissions that can cause sicknesses among people.

12.Natural gas is found deep in the earth and is obtained by drilling. It is flammable, colorless and odorless. It is mostly composed of methane.

13.Advantages of using natural gases may include the following:
1. Less damage to the environment
2. Burns cleaner than other fossil fuels
3. It is more abundant than other fossil fuels.
4. It is safer and cheaper to use than other fossil fuels.

14. Disadvantages of using natural gases may include the following:
1. Natural gas leaks may be explosive.
2. Burning natural gas may cause greenhouse gases.
3. It is expensive to obtain and transport

15.Fracking is a technique to recover gas and oil from shale rock. It is obtained by a drilling process similar to drilling for oil. A high-pressure water mixture is used to break up cracks in the rock and release the gas and oil. It can be drilled both horizontally and vertically.

16. Advantages of fracking:
1. Can reach more oil and gas than traditional methods
2. Makes our country less dependent on foreign oil
3. Creates jobs

17. Disadvantages of fracking:
1. Keeps us from developing other new resources
2. Uses a lot of water in the process and may pollute groundwater
3. Creates noise pollution
4. Unknown chemicals are used in the extraction process

18 Nuclear energy is considered to be nonrenewable resource. Advantages of nuclear energy include the following:
1. Low pollution
2. Reliable
3. Low cost to produce
4. Little fusion material is needed to produce a lot of energy
5. Easily transported

18. Disadvantages of nuclear energy include the following:
1. Mining uranium causes environment pollution
2. High cost of maintaining wasted nuclear waste
3. Plants are expensive to build and maintain
4. Accidents at plants are dangerous and costly

19. Renewable resources are energy sources that naturally renew or replenish themselves in a reasonable amount of time. They are not depleted by use.

20.Biomass is any plant or microorganisms that were recently living. Energy comes from burning it. It becomes a biofuel when mixed with gasoline.

21.Biomass can be stored and used when needed; it releases less harmful pollutants into the air than other resources; and uses materials that are normally discarded.

22.Growing plants specifically for use as biomass may result in overuse of fertilizers and pesticides (pollutants) and the land could be used for growing foods.

23.Wind energy is produced by the use of turbines. The blades turn a generator that creates electricity. This is a very clean, non-polluting method of producing energy. It can be very effective and cheap when used in areas with steady winds. It is not a good source of energy in all locations. The turbines are dangerous to birds and bats.

24. Hydroelectricity is produced by capturing energy from moving water. Hydroelectric plants are located on large dams that are located on rapidly moving rivers. The dams contain large turbines that generate electricity. It is generally inexpensive to capture the energy. The dams provide reliable energy because engineers control the flow of water. Rivers are located everywhere making use available in many areas. Damming a river may cause environmental impacts for wildlife, plants, and people. It is expensive to build a dam. Droughts may cause insufficient water levels for the dam to be effective.

25.Heat energy from deep within the Earth is referred to as geothermal. Water is warmed by magma and pumped to the Earth’s surface. Geothermal energy is usually used to heat houses and other buildings. Steam can be captured and used to run turbines that produce electricity. Iceland uses geothermal energy for about 90% of its people. Geothermal energy is clean and does not produce harmful pollutants into the air. Unfortunately, there is a high cost to build geothermal power plants and it is not easily transported to other areas. Geothermal resources are limited to specific locations.

26. Energy from the sun (solar) uses technology to capture the sun’s rays. There is little maintenance in building a solar farm and it is a relatively simple technology. It is reliable and quiet. Solar energy cannot be created at night and cloud cover may decrease power. Only 20% of solar energy is converted into electricity.

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